Chapter 7

__Impulse and Linear Momentum__

Linear Momentum is defined as the product of mass and linear velocity. Pushing
an object to the right, results in a reaction to the left**.** A
rifle (attached to a cart) fired to the left makes the rifle move to the right
as shown**:**

It is easy to both mathematically and experimentally verify that

M_{b} V_{b}
= M_{r}V_{r} . This means**:** " Momentum to
the left " ** = ** "
Momentum to the right **.**"

The product M**V**
, or **linear momentum** is an important
quantity in physics**.**

__Momentum is a Vector:__

M**V** is a vector, because velocity is a vector**.** This
requires momentum to have direction**.**

Example 1: A solid
ball of mass M_{1} = 0**.**15kg is rolling to the right at speed V_{1}
= 4**.**0m/s and another ball of mass M_{2}=0**.**35kg is rolling to the left at V_{2} =
6**.**0m/s**.** Find (a) the momentum of each ball and (b) the net momentum**.**

**Solution: **(a) M_{1}**V _{1}** =
(0

(b)** **ΣM**V
** = ** **M_{1}**V _{1 }+_{ }**
M

Example 2: A
baseball of mass 0**.**120kg is served by a pitcher horizontally to the left at 17
m/s and it returns to the right at 63 m/s after getting struck by a bat**.**
Calculate the change in its momentum**.**

**Solution: **Recall that Δ
is used to denote change and it means a final value minus its initial value;
therefore, we need to calculate Δ(MV)
= MV_{f }- MV_{i}.

Δ(MV)
= M ( V_{f } - V_{i }
) = 0**.**120kg [ ( + 63 m /s) -
( - 17 m /s)
] = + 9.6 kg m/s.

__Impulse: __

Impulse ( I ) is the product of force and
a time interval. Mathematically impulse ( I ) is shown as FΔ**t.**
For example, if a grocery cart is pushed with a constant force of 44N to the
left for 25 seconds, the impulse of the pusher on the cart is

I = F
Δt ;
I = (** ** -
44N)(25s)
= -1100 Ns.

Note that
Impulse and momentum have same units. The unit of momentum M**V** is
(kg m/s)**.**

So is the unit of impulse**: ** (Ns)
= (kg m/s^{2})(s) = kg m/s.

__Equivalence of Impulse and
Linear Momentum:__

It is easy to show that the impulse of force F during
time Δt
on mass M is equal to the change in the linear momentum of mass
**M**, simply,

FΔt
= Δ(MV)
; F
Δt = M V_{f}
- M_{
}V_{i
}or,_{ }

_{ }
Impulse = Change
in Momentum.

__Proof:__** **
Starting with Newton's 2^{nd} law** (**for a
single force**): (**Make sure to write all down as you proceed using
horizontal fraction bars)**.**

** **F = Ma
, replacing a by
Δv_{/}Δt
, and multiplying thru by
Δt,
results in:

F = M
Δv_{/}Δt ;
FΔt
= M
Δv ;
FΔt
= M (v_{f} - v_{i})
; FΔt
= Mv_{f} - M_{ }v_{i }**.**

and the equivalence of Impulse and change in
linear momentum is verified**.**

Example 3: A stationary train car
of mass 12,000kg gets hit by another car moving to the
right and is pushed with an average force of 4500N for a period of 4**.**2s**.**
Find the final velocity of the stationary car**.**

**Solution: **Using the **equivalence of Impulse and linear
momentum, **results in**:**

FΔt
= M (
v_{f} - v_{i}
) ;
(+4500N)(4**.**2s) = (12,000kg)(
v_{f} -
0 )
;
v_{f} = +1.6 m/s
( to the right )

Example 4: A 0**.**150-kg base
ball is thrown horizontally to the left by a
pitcher**.** Its velocity just before getting hit by the bat is 15 m/s to the left and after the strike
becomes 45 m/s to the right**.** Find (a) the change in velocity
Δv,
(b) the change in momentum MΔv,
(c) the impulse of the bat on the ball, and (d) the average force of the
bat on the ball if the contact time is 0**.**020s**.**

**Solution:** (a)
Δv = v_{f} - v_{i
}
= ( + 45 m/s )
- ( -15 m/s ) =
+ 60**.** m/s (The change
in velocity, not the change in speed ! )

(b) MΔv =
(0**.**150 kg)( + 60**.** m/s) =
+ 9.0 kg m/s**.**

(c) According to the equivalence of impulse and linear momentum,
FΔt
= 9.0 kg m/s as well**.**

(d) FΔt
= + 9.0 kg m/s ; F
(0**.**020s) = + 9.0 kg m/s
;
F = + 450N.

__Conservation of Linear Momentum:__

It is easy to show that when a system of particles go through
collisions with each other, the total momentum remains constant**.** To prove
this, let us consider the head-on collision of only two balls that move toward
each other along the same straight line**.** Also suppose that both balls have
the same size**.** The following figure shows solid spheres A and B with masses M_{1}
and M_{2} move at velocities V_{1} and V_{2} toward each other along the same line**.**
There are 3 stages**:** before collision, during collision, and after collision, as
shown**:**

The total momentum before collision is**:** M_{1}**V**_{1}
+ M_{2}**V**_{2}
( **V _{1}** and

The total momentum after collision is** : **
M_{1 }u_{1} ** +**
M_{2 }u_{2}
( u_{1} and u_{2} are velocities
after collision)**.**

During collision, each** ball** acts as
a **wall **for the other**.** In fact, each ball act
as a baseball bat for the other and imparts an impulse on the other ball**.**

According to Newton's 3rd law,
the impulse of ball A on ball B must be equal to the impulse of ball B on
ball A, but in opposite direction**.** One impulse is F_{AB}Δt,
and the other -F_{BA}Δt.
Forces are equal, and so are the contact times**.**

We can write**:** F_{AB}Δt
= M_{2}u_{2} - M_{2}V_{2 and
}F_{BA}Δt
= M_{1}u_{1} - M_{1}V_{1}.

Since F_{AB}Δt
= - F_{BA}Δt
; therefore, M_{2}u_{2}
- M_{2}V_{2 }= - ( M_{1}u_{1}
- M_{1}V_{1}).

Rearranging yields: M_{1}u_{1
}+_{ }M_{2}u_{2} = M_{1}V_{1}
+ M_{2}V_{2}.

This simply shows that

" Total momentum after collision = Total momentum before collision;"

in other words, linear momentum is conserved.

Example 5: A 1**.**00-kg toy
car moving to the right at 1**.**40 m/s is hit from behind with a 0**.**500-kg
piece of dough thrown horizontally also to the right at 3**.**60 m/s that
causes the car and dough combination move faster**.** Calculate the speed of
the car-dough combo, knowing that the dough sticks to car**.**

**Solution:** Total momentum after collision must be equal to the total
momentum before collision**.** This results in**:**

M_{c}V_{c} + M_{d}V_{d} = ( M_{c}
+ M_{d} ) V_{cd} ;

(1**.**00kg)(1**.**40m/s) + (0**.**500kg)(3**.**6m/s) = (1**.**00 + 0**.**500)kg(V_{cd})
; V_{cd} = 2.13 m/s.

Example 6: A 4**.**50-kg rifle
is fixed on a 1**.**50-kg cart so that its barrel points horizontally to the
right**.** The cart can roll with negligible friction and is initially at
rest**.** The rifle is fired with a remote control device and shoots a 45**.**0
gram bullet to the right** ** As a result the rifle itself moves to the **left** at 2**.**50
m/s**.** Calculate the bullet exit speed**.**

**Solution:** Total mom**.** after collision must be equal to the total
mom**.** before collision**.** Since before firing (or collision), both the bullet and rifle are
at rest, total momentum before firing is zero.
According to the law of conservation of linear momentum, the total mom.
after firing must also be equal to zero
as well. This means that**:**

M_{b}V_{b} + M_{r}V_{r} = M_{b}V_{b}
+ M_{r}V_{r} ; (Note
that M_{r} is not just the mass of rifle,
it is the mass of rifle and cart)**.**

(0**.**045kg)( 0 ) + (4**.**50kg + 1**.**50kg)( 0 ) =
(0**.**045kg)(V_{b}) + (4**.**50kg + 1**.**50kg)( -
2**.**50 m/s) or,

0
**+ **
0
= (0**.**045kg)(V_{b})
- 15**.**0 kg m/s
or,

or, 15**.**0
kg m/s
= 0**.**045 V_{b}

V_{b } =
+ 333 m/s ( Of course, (+)
means to the right )

Chapter 7 Test Yourself 1:

1) Momentum is (a) a scalar (b) a vector
(c) sometimes a vector and sometimes a scalar**.** click here

2) Momentum is defined as the product of (a) Force and a time interval
(b) force and mass (c) Mass and velocity**.**

3) The reason momentum is a vector is that (a) mass is a vector (b)
velocity is a vector (c) neither a, nor b**.**

4) If your car including you has a mass of 800-kg and is moving at (25 m/s,
North), the momentum of your vehicle is (a) 20,000 kg m/s (b) 20,000
kg m/s, North (c) neither a, nor b**.** click here

Problem: Suppose you are in outer space far from
planets and stars (almost zero gravity)**.** If you are holding a 1**.**0-kg
rock in your hand and your mass including your space suit is 75 kg and you throw
the rock in say +x direction at a speed of 7**.**5m/s**.** Answer the following**:** click here

5) (a) You remain stationary (b) You move at a speed of 7**.**5m/s in the
opposite direction (c) You move at a speed of 0**.**10m/s in the
opposite direction**.**

6) The momentum of the rock is (a) +7**.**5kgm/s (b) +7**.**5kgm/s^{2}
(c) +7**.**5kg/s**.** click here

7) Your momentum after the rock is thrown is (a) -7**.**5kgm/s (b) 0
(c) 75g**.**

8) If you are at the origin (0,0), and your friend is standing on the negative
x-axis at (-20**.**0m,
0), how long would it take for you to reach him? (a) 75s (b) (1/75)s
(c) 200s**.**

Impulse:

9) The average force a baseball bat exerts on a baseball during a contact
time of 0**.**025s is 400N. The Impulse of the bat on the baseball is
(a) 425 Ns (b) 10Ns (c) 16000 Ns**.** click here

10) The impulse of force F during the time interval
Δt is
(a) FΔt
(b) F /Δt
(c) FΔt^{2}**.**

11) FΔt
acting on mass **M** is equal to (a) the change in the acceleration of **M**
(b) the change in mass **M** (c) the change in the linear
momentum of **M.** click here

12) The correct form of impulse-momentum
equivalence is (a) FΔt
= M(V_{f}^{2}_{ }- V_{i}^{2})
(b) FΔt = M(**V _{f
}**-

13) For a head-on collision of two equal size
balls of masses M1 and M2 moving with velocities **V _{1}** and

14) A perfectly elastic collision is one during
which (a) there is no potential energy change (b) K**.**E**.** remains
constant (c) one object remains stationary**.** click here

15) If you drop a ball made of an elastic
material from a height of 1m on a rigid floor that is also made of the same
material, you may call it perfectly elastic if it bounces back to a height of
(a) 0**.**5m (b) 0**.**95m (c) 1**.**0m
again**.**

16) A perfectly elastic material is (a) ideal
and cannot really be made (b) real and easy to make (c) called Flubber**.**

17) In a perfectly elastic collision, (a) K**.**E**.**
is conserved (b) K**.**E**.** does not change (c) K**.**E**.** before collision is
equal to K**.**E**.** after collision (d) a, b, and c, mean the same thing**.**
click here

18) When a bullet hits a chunk of wood and gets
embedded in it, since part of the bullet's K**.**E**.** is consumed for deformation and
penetration into the wood, we may say that the collision is (a) inelastic
(b) elastic (c) elastic but with some energy loss**.**

Problem: A 0**.**0500-kg
bullet is fired at a muzzle speed of 400**.** m/s, to
the right, into a 3**.**950-kg
chunk of wood hanging from a tree via a long cord**.** After collision,
the wood-bullet combination gains a velocity V and swings**.**
Answer the following questions**:** (All numbers are good to 3
significant figures)**.**

19) The initial K**.**E**.** of the bullet before
collision is (a) 8000J (b) 16000J (c) 4000J**.**
click here

20) The initial K**.**E**.** of the still wood before
collision is (a) 3**.**950J (b) 0 (c) 400J**.**

21) The conservation of momentum before and
after collision may be written as M_{b}**V**_{b} + M_{w}**V**_{w}
= (M_{b} +M_{w})V**.** (a) True (b)False
click here

22) From 21, the wood-bullet velocity, V, after
collision is (a) 10**.**0m/s (b) 5**.**00 m/s
(c) 0**.**

23) The K**.**E**.** of the wood-bullet combo, after
collision is (a) 50**.**0J (b) 250J
(c) 400J**.**

24) The change in K**.**E**.** in this collision is (a)
-3950J (b) 3900J (c) 0**.** click here

25) Based on the results, this collision is (a)
highly elastic (b) highly inelastic (c) perfectly
inelastic**.**

__Problems:__ (g = 9.81m/s^{2}
in the following problems)**.**

1) A rifle attached to a plank of wood is placed on a horizontal long
table on a track**.** The rifle barrel is parallel to the table**.** The
coefficient of friction between the plank and the table is 0**.**450**.**
When the rifle is fired, the bullet goes to the left and the rifle-plank combo
slides to the right**.** The rifle-plank combo comes to stop after sliding a distance of 2**.**40m**.**
If the mass of the bullet is 69**.**0 grams and that of the rifle-plank combo
excluding the bullet 5**.**30kg, find (a) the initial speed of the rifle-bullet
combo
just after firing, and (b) the muzzle speed (the initial speed) of the bullet
just after firing**.**

2) A 40**.**0-gram rubber ball released from a height of 1**.**41m
above a
perfectly horizontal concrete floor bounces back to a height of 1**.**13m**.**
Calculate (a) its velocity just before collision, (b) its velocity just after
collision, and (c) the loss in its kinetic energy**.**

3) A small steel ball is dropped from a height of 1**.**00m onto a
perfectly horizontal steel floor**.** If the change in the kinetic energy
during collision is 5**.**0%, find the maximum height the
ball reaches after collision**.**

4) In a collision, an 8**.**00-ton train car traveling at a velocity of
(1**.**20m/s, North) interlocks with an empty train car that has a mass of
2**.**00 tons**.** Calculate (a) the velocity of the interlocked cars just
after collision, and (b) the change in the K**.**E**.**.

5) On a horizontal surface, solid ball A (M_{A} = 0**.**200kg)
traveling at (v_{A} = + 4**.**00m/s) makes a
head-on collision with ball B (M_{B} = 0**.**200kg) that is initially
at rest (v_{B} = 0)**.** Let the
after collision velocities be u_{A} and
u_{B}, and write (a) the momentum balance
equation, (b) the energy balance equation, both in terms of u_{A}
and u_{B}**.** Solve the two equations to find
the unknowns u_{A} and u_{B}**.**
Assume the collision is perfectly elastic that means there is no loss in kinetic
energy**.**

6) A 48-gram tennis ball traveling to the right at 25m/s is hit by a racket
that exerts a leftward force of 120N on the ball for 0**.**030s**.** Find
the final velocity of the ball**.**

7) An 80**.**0-gram baseball traveling horizontally to the left at 35m/s
gets hit by a bat that exerts a leftward force of 320N on the ball for a short
time**.** The ball returns horizontally at a speed of 65m/s**.** Find the
contact time between the bat and the ball**.**

Answers: 1)
4**.**60m/s, 353m/s 2)
-5**.**26m/s, + 4**.**71m/s, -0**.**110J
3) 95cm

4) 0**.**96m/s, North;
-1150J 5)
u_{A} = 0, u_{B}.= +4.00m/s
6) -5**0**m/s
7) 0**.**025s