__Chapter 21__

__Magnetic Field:__

**Magnetism is the result of electric charge motion. ** As soon as an
electric charge moves, it creates a magnetic effect perpendicular to its
direction of motion. This can be easily verified by the a magnetized nail.
If a steel nail is placed inside a coil ( A coil is a piece copper wire wrapped
around a cylinder) that is connected to a battery, the nail becomes a magnet.
Since the nail itself is perpendicular to the surface of each loop of the
coil; therefore, we can say that the current, or the motion of electric charges
is perpendicular to the nail (magnetic field). See the figure.

The reason for naming the poles of the nail as N and S is that if a magnet is hung at its middle by a string, it turns and aligns itself toward almost the North and South poles of the Earth. The end that points to the North is called its North pole and the other end that points to the South pole is called the South pole of the magnet. The Geographic North and the Magnetic North are off by a few degrees however, and the position of the magnetic north changes slightly over years. The reason for the magnetic effect of the Earth is also the motion of charged particles. The molten metal at the core of the Earth is ionized and has a rotational motion parallel to the Equator creating a huge magnet whose field must be perpendicular to the Equator plane and therefore passes through the North pole and the South pole of the Earth.

__Magnetic Field Lines:__

Magnetic field lines are generally accepted to emerge from the North pole of a magnet and enter its South pole as shown. This can be easily verified by placing a tiny compass around a bar-magnet at different positions.

**It is impossible to separate the North and South poles of a
magnet**. They coexist. If a bar magnet is cut from the middle (
its neutral zone), each piece becomes an independent magnet possessing a South
pole and a North pole. This is not the case with electric charges. **It
is possible to have a separate negative charge and a separate positive
charge. **

__The Theory Behind Magnetism__

As we know, atoms are made of negative electrons, positive protons, and neutral neutrons. Protons and neutrons have almost the same mass but are much heavier than electrons. Protons and neutrons form the nucleus. Electrons orbit the nucleus. Electrons are considered the moving charges in atoms. Electrons generate magnetic fields perpendicular to their planes of rotation. The following argument gives you an idea of how some materials exhibit magnetic property although such discussion does not reflect the exact picture.

Visualize a single electron orbiting the
nucleus of its atom. For simplicity, visualize a sphere in which space
such
electron spins at a rate of say 10^{15}
turns per second. This means
one thousand trillion
turns every second. Therefore, at every one-thousand-trillionth
of a second it possesses a particular plane of rotation in space.
In other words, the orientation of its plane of rotation changes 10^{15 }times
every second. That is why we say it creates an electronic cloud. Three of
such orientations are sketched below. For each plane of rotation,
the magnetic field vector is shown to have its maximum effect at the center of
the circle of rotation and perpendicular to that circle.

An pure substance of mass 1 lb, for example, contains a very large
number of atoms, and each atom, depending on the type of element, contains several
electrons each of which at any given instant has its own orientation
of rotation and its own orientation of magnetic field vector. We are
talking about hundreds of trillion trillions different magnetic field vectors in
a piece (1 lb) of material. There is no guarantee that all such electrons have
their magnetic field vectors oriented in a single direction so that their
magnetic effects add up. An **orbital **is a space around a nucleus
where the possibility of finding electrons is high. An orbital can be
spherical, dumbbell-shaped, or of a few other particular shapes. Here, we assume
a spherical orbital for simplicity. Theory of atoms proves that each orbital
fills up with 2
electrons. The two electrons in each orbital must have opposite spin directions.
This makes the two magnetic field vectors point to opposite
directions as well. The result is a zero net magnetic effect. This way,
each atom that contains an even number of electrons has all of its orbitals filled with pairs of electrons. Such atoms are magnetically
neutral. However, atoms that contain odd numbers of electrons will have an
orbital that is left with a single electron. Such atoms are not
magnetically neutral by themselves. They become magnetically neutral, when
they form molecules with the same or other atoms. There are a few elements
such as iron, cobalt, and nickel that have a particular atomic structure. This
particular structure allows a certain orbital in each atom to have a single electron. Under normal
circumstances, there is no guarantee that all such particular orbitals of the atoms a
piece of iron, for example, to have their magnetic field vectors lined up
parallel to each other**, **but if a piece of pure iron is placed in an
external magnetic field, the planes of rotation of those single electrons line
up such that their magnetic fields line up with the
direction of the external field, and after the external field is removed, they
tend to keep their new orientation and therefore the piece of pure iron becomes a
magnet itself. The conclusion is the fact
that magnetism is the result of electric charge motion and that the magnetic
field vector is perpendicular to the plane of rotation of electron.

__Like poles and Unlike
poles:__

Like poles repel and unlike poles attract. This behavior is similar to that of electric charges. Recall that like charges repel and unlike charges attract. One difference is that separate positive and negative charges are possible while separate North and South poles are not. See the figure shown:

__Uniform Magnetic Fields:__

The magnetic field strength around a bar magnet is not uniform and varies with distance from its poles. The reason is that the field lines around a bar magnet are not parallel. The density of field lines is a function of distance from the poles. In order to make parallel magnetic field lines, the bar magnet must be bent into the shape of a horseshoe. The field lines that emerge from the N-pole of the magnet then have to directly enter its S-pole and they necessarily become parallel. This is true only for the space in between the poles. See the figure.

__The Force of a Magnetic Field on a Moving
Charge__

When a moving charge enters a magnetic field such that field lines are crossed, the charge finds itself under a force perpendicular to its direction of motion that gives it a circular motion. If a charge enters a field such that its motion direction is parallel to the field lines and no field line is crossed, then the charge will not be affected by the field and keeps going straight. Picture yourself sitting in a classroom facing the board, and visualize a downward uniform magnetic field (ceiling being the North pole and floor the South pole of the magnet). Visualize a positive charge entering from the left side of the classroom going toward the right side. This positive charge will initially be forced toward the board as shown:

If the downward magnetic field vector is (B), and the charge rightward velocity vector is (v), the magnitude of force (F) initially pushing the moving charge toward the board is given by:

F = q v B. Fig.2

If charge (q) is making an angle θ with the magnetic field lines, then (F) will have a smaller value given by:

F = q v B sin θ. Fig. 1

If (v) points to the left, then (F) will point toward the class. If (B) points upward, then F will point toward the class. If the charge is negative, then (F) will point toward the class. Therefore, there are three variables that can affect the direction of (F). If an odd number of these variables change simultaneously, then the direction of (F) reverses. If an even number of these variables change simultaneously (any two), the direction of (F) remains the same.

The unit for B is expressed in Tesla (T). If (F) is in Newtons, (v) in m/s, and (q) in Coulombs, then, (B) will be in Tesla.

**One Tesla** of magnetic field strength is the strength that
can exert a force of **1N** on **1Coul.** of electric charge that is
moving at a speed of **1 m/s perpendicular** to the magnetic field lines.

Example 1: A 14-μC
charge enters from the left perpendicular to a downward magnetic field of
strength 0**.**030 Tesla at a speed of 1**.**8x10^{5} m/s.
Find the magnitude and direction of the initial force on it as soon as it
crosses a field line. Refer to **Fig.2**.

**Solution: **Referring to Fig. 2, it is clear that the
charge will initially be pushed toward the board. The magnitude of this
initial push is

F = q v B ;
F = ( 14-μC )( 1**.**8x10^{5}
m/s)( 0**.**030 T) = 0**.**076N.

Example 2: A 14-μC
charge enters from the left through a 65°
angle with respect to a downward magnetic field of strength 0**.**030 Tesla
at a speed of 1**.**8x10^{5} m/s. Find the magnitude and
direction of the initial force on it as soon as it crosses a field line.
Refer to **Fig.1**.

**Solution: **Referring to Fig. 1, it is clear that the
charge will initially be pushed toward the board. The magnitude of this
initial push is

F = q v Bsin θ
; F = ( 14-μC
)( 1**.**8x10^{5} m/s)( 0**.**030 T) sin (65°
)= 0**.**069N.

Example 3: An
electron enters a 0**.**013-T magnetic field normal to its field lines and
experiences a 3**.**8x10^{-15}N force. Determine its speed.

Solution: F = q v B ;
v = (F / qB) = ( 3**.**8x10^{-15}N) **
/** [(1**.**6x10^{-19}C)(0.013T)]
= 1**.**8x10^{6} m/s

__Motion of a charged Particle
in a Magnetic Field:__

So far, we have learned that when a charged particle crosses
magnetic field lines, it is forced to change direction. This change of
direction does not stop as long as there are field lines to be crossed in the
pathway of motion of the charged particle. Magnetic
field lines keep changing the direction of motion of the charged particle
and if the field is constant in magnitude and direction, it gives a circular motion to the charged particle. The
reason is that F is
perpendicular to V at any instant and position and that exactly defines
the concept of centripetal force. Recall the
concept of centripetal force. Centripetal force, F_{c},
is always directed toward the center of rotation. Such force makes an
object of mass M traveling at speed V
to go around a circle of radius R. In fact it is
the force of magnetic field, F_{m}, that supplies
the necessary centripetal force, F_{c}**. ** We
may equate the two after comparing the two figures below:

This formula is useful in finding the radius of curvature of the circular path of a charged particle when caught in a magnetic field.

Example 4: A proton
( q = 1**.**6x10^{-19}C, M = 1**.**67x10^{-27}kg)
is captured in a 0**.**107-T magnetic field an spins along a circle of radius
4**.**5 cm. Find its speed knowing that it moves perpendicular to the
field lines.

**Solution:** R = (Mv) / (qB)
; solving for
v:

v = rqB / M
; v =
(0**.**045m)(1**.**6x10^{-19}C )(0**.**107T) / 1**.**67x10^{-27}kg
= 4**.**6x10^{5 }m/s

Example 5: In a certain device,
alpha-particles enter a 0**.**88-T magnetic field perpendicular to its field
lines. Find the radius of rotation they attain if each carries an average
kinetic energy of 520 keV**.** An alpha-particle is a helium nucleus.
It contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons. M_{p} = 1**.**672x10^{-27}kg
and M_{n} = 1**.**674x10^{-27}kg**.**

**Solution:** Since the K.E. of each alpha-particle is given, knowing its
mass ( 2M_{p} + 2M_{n} ), its speed can be calculated.
K.E. = (1/2)Mv^{2} **.** Note that 1eV = 1**.**6x10^{-19}J
; therefore, 1keV = 1**.**6x10^{-16}J**.**

K.E. = (1/2)Mv^{2}
; 520(1**.**6x10^{-16}J)
**=** (1/2)[ 2(1**.**672x10^{-27}kg)
+ 2(1**.**674x10^{-27}kg) ] v^{2}

v = 5**.**0x10^{6} m/s ;
R = (Mv) / (qB) ;

R =
[ 2(1**.**672x10^{-27}kg) + 2(1**.**674x10^{-27}kg)
](5**.**0x10^{6} m/s) **/**
[(**2** x 1**.**6x10^{-19}C)( 0**.**88T)]

Each alpha-particle has **2** protons and carries **2** x 1**.**6x10^{-19}C
of electric charge. R = 0.12m = 12cm.

A Good Link to Try:

http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/viewtopic.php?t=53

__Chapter 21 Test Yourself 1:__

1) In magnetizing a nail that is wrapped around with a coil of wire, the direction of the electric current in the loops of the wire is (a) parallel to the nail. (b) perpendicular to the nail if the loops are closely packed. (c) almost perpendicular to the nail if the loops are not closely packed. (d) b & c. click here

2) The direction of the magnetic field in a magnetized nail is (a) along the nail. (b) perpendicular to the nail. (c) neither a nor b.

3) If the four bent fingers of the right hand point in the direction of current in the loops of a magnetized coil, then the thumb points to (a) the South pole of the magnet coil. (b) the North pole of the magnet coil. (c) the direction normal to the magnet coil. click here

4) The magnetized nail experiment shows that (a) magnetic field occurs anywhere that there is an iron core. (b) anywhere a charged particle moves, magnetic effect develops in all directions. (c) anywhere a charged particle moves, there appears a magnetic effect that is normal to the direction of the charged particle's motion.

5) An electron orbiting the nucleus of an atom (a) does not develop a magnetic field because its radius of rotation is extremely small. (b) generates a magnetic effect that is of course normal to its plane of rotation at any instant. (c) cannot generate any magnetic effect because of its extremely small charge. click here

6) In a hydrogen molecule, H_{2} , the net magnetic effect caused by
the rotation of its two electrons is zero because (a) at any instant, the two
electrons spin in opposite directions creating opposite magnetic effects.
(b) the instant its two electrons pass by each other, they repel and change
planes of rotation that are opposite to each other causing opposite magnetic
effects. (c) both a & b.

7) The reason that atoms, in general, are magnetically neutral is that (a) electrons of atoms must exist in pairs spinning in opposite directions thereby neutralizing each other's magnetic effect. (b) not all atoms are iron atoms and therefore do not have any magnetic effect in them. click here

8) The reason iron and a few other elements can maintain magnetism in them is that (a) these elements can have orbits in them that contain unpaired electrons. (b) under an external magnetic field, the orbits in these element with a single electron in them can orient themselves to the direction of the external field and stay that way. (c) both a & b.

9) For a bar-magnet, the magnetic field lines (a) emerge from its South pole and enter its North pole. (b) emerge from its North pole and enter its South pole. (c) emerge from its poles and enter its middle, the neutral zone. click here

10) If a bar magnet is cut at its middle, the neutral zone, (a) one piece becomes a pure North pole and the other piece a pure South pole. (b) both pieces will have their own South and North poles because magnetic poles coexist. (c) neither a nor b.

11) The magnetic field strength around a bar magnet is (a) uniform. (b) nonuniform that means varies with distance from its poles. (c) uniform at points far from the poles. click here

12) The magnetic field in between the poles of a horseshoe magnet is (a) uniform. (b) nonuniform. (c) zero.

13) The magnetic field in between the poles of a horseshoe magnet (a) varies with distance from its either pole. (b) is directed from N to S. (c) has a constant magnitude and direction and is therefore uniform. (d) b & c. click here

Problem: Visualize you are sitting in a class facing
the board. Suppose that the ceiling is the North pole of a huge horseshoe
magnet and the floor is its South pole; therefore,
you are sitting inside a uniform downward magnetic field.
Also visualize a fast moving positive charge emerges from the left wall and is
heading for the right wall**;** in other words, the velocity
vector of the positive charge acts to the right. Answer the following
questions:

14) The charge will initially be pushed (a) toward you. (b) downward. (c) toward the board.

15) The charge will take a path that is (a) straight toward the board. (b) circular at a certain radius of rotation. (c) curved upward. click here

16) If the radius of curvature is small such that the charge does not leave the space between the poles of the magnet it will have a circular motion that looking from the top will be (a) counterclockwise. (b) clockwise. (c) oscillatory.

17) If instead, a negative charge entered from the left side, it would spin (a) counterclockwise. (b) clockwise.

18) If a positive charge entered from the right side heading for the left, looking from the top again, it would spin (a) clockwise. (b) counterclockwise. click here

19) If the polarity of a magnetic field is reversed, the spin direction of a charged particle caught in it will (a) remain the same. (b) reverse as well.

20) The force, F of a magnetic field, B on a moving charge, q is proportional to the (a) filed strength, B. (b) particle's velocity, V. (c) the amount of the charge, q. (d) sinθ of the angle V makes with B. (e) a, b, c, & d.

21) The force, F of a magnetic field, B on a moving charge, q is given by (a) F = qB. (b) F = qV. (c) F = qvBsinθ.

22) In the formula F = qvBsinθ, if q is in Coulombs, v in m/s, and F in Newtons, then B is in (a) N/(Coul. m/s). (b) Tesla. (c) a & b. click here

23) The magnitude of the force that a 0**.**0025-T
magnetic field exerts on a proton that enters it normal to its field lines and
has a speed of 3**.**7x10^{6} m/s is (a) 1**.**5x10^{15}N
!! (b) 0 (c) 1**.**5x10^{-15}N

24) An electron moves at a speed of 7**.**4x10^{7}
m/s parallel to a uniform magnetic field. The force that the magnetic
field exerts on it is (a) 3**.**2x10^{-19}N. (b) 0
(c) 4**.**8x10^{-19}N.
click here

25) The force that keeps a particle in circular motion is (a) circular force. (b) centripetal force. (c) tangential force.

26) When a charged particle is caught in a magnetic field and it keeps spinning at a certain radius of rotation, the necessary centripetal force is (a) the force of magnetic field on it that keeps it spinning. (b) the electric force of the charged particle itself. (c) both a & b. click here

27) Equating the force of magnetic field,
F_{m} and the centripetal force, F_{c}
is like (a) Mv/R = qvB. (b)
v^{2}/R = qvB.
(c) Mv^{2}/R = qvB.

28) In the previous question, solving for R
yields**:** (a) R = qvB/(Mv^{2}).
(b) R = Mv /(qB). (c) both a & b.

29) The radius of rotation a 4**.**0-μCoul.
being carried by a 3**.**4-μg mass moving at 360 m/s normal to a 0**.**78-T
magnetic field attains is (a) 39cm. (b) 3**.**9m
(c) 7**.**8m
click here

30) One electron-volt of energy (1 eV) is the energy of (1 electron) in an electric field where the potential is ( 1 Volt). This follows the formula (a) P.E. = qV where q is replaced by the charge of 1 electron and V is 1volt. (b) P.E. = Mgh. (c) neither a nor b.

31) Knowing that 1eV = 1**.**6x10^{-19}J,
if a moving proton has an energy of 25000eV, its energy calculated in Joules is
(a) 4**.**0x10^{-15}J (b) 1**.**56x10^{23
}J (c) 4**.**0x10^{-19}J
click here

32) A 25-keV proton enters a 0**.**014-T
magnetic field normal to its field lines. Each proton has a mass of 1**.**67x10^{-27}kg.
The radius of rotation if finds is (a) 1**.**63m (b) 2**.**63m
(c) 3**.**63m.

__Velocity Selector:__

It is possible to run a charged particle through a magnetic field
perpendicular to the field lines without any deviations from straight path.
All one has to do is to place an electric field in a way that neutralizes the
effect of the magnetic field. Let's visualize
sitting in a classroom (facing the board of course) in which the ceiling is the
N-pole, floor the S-pole, and a positive charge is to travel from left to right
normal to the downward magnetic field lines. As was discussed before, the
magnetic field does initially push the positive charge toward the board.
Now, if the board is positively charge and the back wall negatively charged, the
charged particle will be pushed toward the back wall by this electric field.
It is possible to adjust the strengths of the magnetic and
electric fields such that the forces they exert on the charge are equal in
magnitude but opposite in direction. This makes the charge travel straight
to the right without deviation. The resulting apparatus is called a
"velocity selector." For a velocity selector we may set the magnetic
force on the charge equal to the electric force on the charge:
F_{m} = F_{e}.
This results in

q v B = q E ; v B = E , or v = E / B .

If there is a large number of charged particles traveling at different speeds but in the same direction, and we want to separate the ones with a certain speed from the rest, this device proves useful.

Example 6: In a left-to-right
flow of alpha-rays (Helium nuclei) coming out of a radioactive substance a 0**.**0225-T
magnetic field is placed in the downward direction. What magnitude
electric field should be placed around the flow such that only **0.050MeV**
alpha-particles survive both fields?

**Solution:** K**.**E**.** = 0.050 MeV
means 0**.**050 **mega** electron-volts that means 5**.**0x10^{4} electron volts. Since each eV is equal to 1**.**6x10^{-19}
Joules **;** therefore, K**.**E**.** = 0**.**050 x 10^{6}
x 1**.**6x10^{-19} J **;**
K**.**E**.** = 8.0x10^{-15}J.

To find v from K.E., use K.E. = (1/2)Mv^{2}**.**
Using M = 6**.**692x10^{-27}kg
(verify) for the mass of an alpha-particle, the speed v is
v = 1.5x10^{6} m/s.

Using the velocity selector formula: v = E / B
; E = vB
; E = (1**.**5x10^{6}
m/s)(0**.**0225 T) = 34000 N/C.

__Cyclotron:__

An application of the foregoing discussion is in cyclotron. Cyclotron is a device that accelerates charged particles for nuclear
experiments. It works on the basis of the motion of charged particles in
magnetic fields. When a particle of mass **M** and charge
q moving at velocity v is caught in
a magnetic field **B**, as we know, it takes a circular path of radius **R**
given by

R = Mv / (qB) .

The space in which the particles spin is cylindrical. To
accelerate the spinning particles to higher and higher velocities, the cylinder
is divided into two semicylinders called the "**D**ees." The dees are connected
to an alternating voltage. This makes the polarity of the "dees" alternate
at a certain frequency. It is arranged such that when positive
particles are in one of the dees, that dee becomes positive to repel the
positive particles and the other dee is negative to attract them and as soon as
the particles enter the negative dee, the polarity changes, the negative dee becomes
positive to repel them again. This continual process keeps accelerating
the particles to a desired speed. Of course, as the speed changes, the
particles acquire greater and greater radii to where they are ready to leave the
cylindrical space at which point they bombard the target nuclei under
experiment. A sketch is shown below**:**

If the speed of the particles become comparable to the speed of light (3**.**00x10^{8} m/s), their
masses increase according to the Einstein's theory of relativity. The mass
increase must then be taken into account when calculating the period of rotation
and energy of the particles. These type of calculations are called
the "relativistic" calculations.

__Period of Rotation:__

Period (T), the time it takes for a charged particle
to travel one circle or 2πR,
can be calculated**.** From the definition of speed V =
2πR / T, solving for
T yields:

T = 2πR / v (*)

v may be found from the formula for radius of rotation R = Mv /(qB). This yields: v = qBR / M. Substituting for v in (*), yields:

T = 2πM / (qB)

Example 7: In a
cyclotron, protons are to be accelerated. The strength of the magnetic
field is 0**.**024 Tesla. (a) Find the period of rotation of the
protons, (b) their frequency, (c) their final speed if the final radius before hitting
the target is 2**.**0m, and (d) their K**.**E**.** in Joules and eVs.

Solution: (a) T = 2πM
/ (qB) ; T =
(2π x 1**.**672x10^{-27}kg) **
/** (1**.**6x10^{-19}C)(0**.**024T)
= 2.7x10^{-6} s

(b) f = 1 / T
; f =
3**.**7x10^{5} s^{-1}
or f =
3**.**7x10^{5} Hz.

(c) v = Rω
; v = R
(2πf) ; v
= (2**.**0m)(2π)(3**.**7x10^{5}s^{-1})
= 4**.**6x10^{6} m/s

This speed (although very high) is
still small enough compared
to the light speed ( 3**.**00x10^{8}
m/s ) that the relativistic effects can still be neglected.

(d) K**.**E**.** = (1/2)Mv^{2}
; K.E. =
(1/2)(1**.**672x10^{-27}kg)(4**.**6x10^{6}m/s)^{2}
= 1**.**8x10^{-14} J

K.E. = 1**.**8x10^{-14} J ( 1 eV **
/ **1**.**6x10^{-19} J) = 110,000eV
** = **110KeV **
=** 0**.**11 MeV

__An Easy Relativistic
Calculation:__

According to the Einstein's theory of relativity, when mass M travels close to speed of light it becomes more massive and more difficult to accelerate further. The mass increase effect is given by the following formula:

Example 8: In a
cyclotron electrons are accelerated to a speed of 2**.**95x10^{8} m/s**.**
(a) By what factor does the electron mass increase? Knowing that the rest mass
of electron M_{o} = 9**.**108x10^{-31}kg, determine (b) its
mass at that speed.

Solution: (a)
Let's find γ step by step. Let's first find (v/c),
then (v/c)^{2} that is the same as v^{2}/c^{2}, then 1-
v^{2}/c^{2}, then the square root of it, and finally 1 over that
square root. The sequence is as follows**:**

(v / c) = 2**.**95 / 3**.**00 = 0**.**98333...
(Note that 10^{8} powers cancel)

v^{2 }/ c^{2} = (v
/ c)^{2} = (0**.**98333...)^{2}
= 0**.**96694...

1 - v^{2 }/ c^{2}
= 1 - 0**.**96694... =
0**.**0330555...

SQRT( 1 - v^{2 }/ c^{2} )
= 0**.**1818119

γ = 1 /
SQRT( 1 - v^{2 }/ c^{2} )
= 1 / 0**.**1818119
= 5**.**50 (The # of times
mass of electron increases)

(b) M = M_{o}γ
;
M = ( 9**.**108x10^{-31}kg )( 5**.**50
) = 5**.**01x10^{-30}
kg

Example 9: Find the
value of γ for protons in Example 7**.**

Solution: To be done by students

__Sources of Magnetic Field:__

Aside from permanent magnets, magnetic fields are mostly generated by coils of wire. A coil is a wire wrapped around a cylinder. Most coils are cylindrical. Long coils produce a fairly uniform magnetic field inside them specially toward their middle and along their axis of symmetry. To understand the magnetic field inside a coil, we need to know that magnetic field around a long straight wire as well as that of a single circular loop.

__Magnetic Field Around a
Straight and Long Wire:__

For a very long and straight wire carrying a current
I, we expect the magnetic field
B to be perpendicular to the direction of
the current. Since anywhere around the wire this property must equally
exist, the magnetic field lines are necessarily concentric circles with the
current (the wire) perpendicular to the planes of the circles at their common
center. The figure is shown below**:**

As r increases,
B of course decreases as is also apparent
from the equation shown above. The
direction of B is determined by the
right-hand rule again. If the thumb shows the
direction of I, the four bent fingers point in the direction of B. In the above formula
μ_{o} = 4π x 10^{-7}
Tm/A is called the permeability of free space (vacuum) for the passage of
magnetic field lines. For any material or substance permeability
μ may be measured. For every
material a constant may then be defined that relates
μ to
μ_{o}**.**

Example 10: If in the
above figure, I = 8.50Amps,
determine the magnitude of B at r = 10**.**0cm, 20**.**0cm, and 30**.**0cm.

Solution: Using the formula
B = μ_{o}I / 2πr,
we get: ;
B_{1} = 1**.**7x10^{-5} Tesla

B_{2} = 8**.**5x10^{-6} Tesla
; B_{3}
= 5**.**7x10^{-6} Tesla

__Magnetic Field of a
Current-Carrying Circular Loop:__

The magnetic field produced by a current-carrying circular loop is necessarily perpendicular to the plane of the loop. The reason is that B must be perpendicular to the current I that the loop carries. The direction is determined by the right-hand rule as was discussed in the nail example at the beginning of this chapter. The magnitude at the center of the loop is given by the following formula. Pay attention to the figure as well.

Example 11: If in the
above figure, I = 6.80Amps,
determine the magnitude of B for r = 10**.**0cm, 20**.**0cm, and 30**.**0cm.

Solution: Using the formula
B = μ_{o}I / 2r,
we get: ;
B_{1} = 4**.**3x10^{-5} Tesla

B_{2} = 2**.**1x10^{-5} Tesla
; B_{3}
= 1**.**4x10^{-5} Tesla

__Magnetic Field Inside a
Solenoid:__

A solenoid is a long coil of wire for
which the length-to-radius ratio is not under about 10. The
magnetic field of a single loop of wire is weak. A solenoid has many loops
and the field lines inside it specially in the vicinity of its middle are fairly
parallel and provide a uniform and stronger field**.** Placing an iron
core inside the solenoid makes the field even stronger, some 400 times stronger**.**
μ_{iron}_{
= 400 } μ_{o}.
(See figure below). The formula for magnetic field strength of a solenoid
is:

B =
μ_{o}nI
where n is the number of turns per unit length.

n in SI units is # of turns per meter of the solenoid.

Example 11: A solenoid is
8**.**0cm long and has 2400 turns. A 1**.**2-A current flows through
it. Find (a) the strength of the magnetic field inside it toward the
middle. (a) If an iron core is inserted in the solenoid, what will the
field the field strength be?

Solution: (a)
B = μ_{o}nI ; B =
(4π x 10^{-7}
Tm/A)(2400turn / 0**.**080m) )(1**.**2A ) = 0.045 Tesla.

(b) Iron increases μ_{o}
by a factor of 400**;** therefore, (400)(0**.**045T)
= 20T

__One Application of Solenoid:__

Anytime you start you car, a solenoid similar to the one in the
above example gets magnetized and pulls in an iron rod. The strong
magnetic field of the solenoid exerts a strong force on the iron rod (core) and
gives it a great acceleration and high speed within a short distance. The
rod is partially in the solenoid to begin with and gets fully pulled in after
the solenoid is connected to the battery by you when you try to crank the engine**.**
The current that feeds the solenoid may not be even one amp, but the connection
it causes between battery and starter pulls several amps from the battery.
The forceful moving rod collides with a copper connector that connects the
starter to the battery. This connection allows a current of 30Amps to
80Amps to flow through the starter motor and crank your car. The variation
of the amperage depends on how cold the engine is. The colder the engine,
the less viscous the oil, and the more power is needed to turn the crankshaft.

Example 12: The magnetic
field inside a 16**.**3cm long solenoid is 0**.**027T when a current of
368 mA flows through it. How many turns does it have?

Solution:
B = μ_{o}nI
; n = B /(μ_{o}I)
;
n = 0**.**027T / [(4π
x 10^{-7}
Tm/A)(0**.**368A )] = 58400 turns /m

This is the number of turns per
meter. If the solenoid was 1**.**00m long, it would have 58400 turns.
It is only 0**.**163m long, and therefore it has less number of turns.
If N is the number of turns, we may write:

N = nL ;
N = (58400 turns /
m)(0**.**163m) = 9520 turns.

__
Definition of Ampere:__

We defined 1A to the flow of 1C of electric charge in 1s. A preferred definition for the unit of electric current or Ampere is made by using the force per unit length that two infinitely long parallel wires exert on each other. Recall that when an electric current flows through an infinitely long and straight wire, it generates a magnetic field around it that can be sensed along concentric circles perpendicular to the wire. If two of such wires are parallel to each other and the current in them flow in the same direction, they attract each other. If the current flows in them in opposite directions, they repel each other. The magnitude of the force they exert on each other depends on the distance between the wires and the currents that flow through them.

If two parallel
wires that are 1m apart have equal currents flowing in
them in the same direction, and the two wires attract each other with a force of 10^{-7}N/m in vacuum, then the current through each
wire is 1Amp.

__Chapter 21 Test Yourself 2:__

1) A velocity selector takes advantage of (a) two perpendicular electric fields. (b) a set of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. (c) two perpendicular magnetic fields. click here

2) The forces (F_{m} and F_{e})
that the magnetic and electric fields of a velocity selector exert on a charge
q, must be (a) equal in magnitude. (b) opposite in
direction. (c) both a & b.

3) F_{m} and F_{e }
in a velocity selector are given by (a) F_{m}
= qvB and F_{e}
= qE. (b) F_{m}
= qB and F_{e}
= qE. (c) F_{m}=qvB and
F_{e}=qE such that
F_{m} = F_{e}.
click here

4) Setting F_{m} = F_{e}
and solving for v results in (a) V = B/E.
(b) V = E/B. (c) V =EB.

5) The formula V = E / B (a) depends on the amount of charge. (b) does not depend on the amount of the charge. (c) does not depend on the sign of the charge. (d) b & c.

6) What strength uniform electric field must be placed normal to a 0**.**0033-T
uniform magnetic field such that only charged particles at a speed of 2**.**4x10^{6}m/s
get passed through along straight lines? (a) 7900N/Coul.
(b) 9700N/Coul. (c) 200N/Coul.
click here

7) A cyclotron is a device that is used to (a) accelerate charged particles to high speeds and energies. (b) accelerate charged particles to speeds close to that of light. (c) perform experiments with the nuclei of atoms. (d) a, b, & c.

8) Speed of light is (a) 3**.**00x10^{8}m/s.
(b) 3**.**00x10^{-8}m/s. (c) 3**.**00x10^{5
}km/s. (d) a & c.

9) A speed of 3**.**00x10^{-8}m/s is (a) faster than speed of
light. (b) slower than the motion of an ant. (c) even
germs may not move that slow. (d) extremely slow, almost motionless.
(e) b, c, and d.
click here

10) In a cyclotron, a charged particle released near the center (a) finds itself in a perpendicular magnetic field and starts spinning. (b) spins at a certain period of rotation given by T = 2πM/(qB). (c) is also under an accelerating electric field that alternates based on the period of rotation of the charged particle. (d) a, b, and c.

11) As the particles in a cyclotron accelerate to high speeds comparable to that of light (a) a mass increase must be taken into account. (b) the mass increase affects the period of rotation. (c) a & b.

12) The magnetic field around a current-carrying long wire (a) is perpendicular to the wire and at equal distances from the wire has the same magnitude. (b) is parallel to the wire. (c) both a and b. click here

13) The magnetic field around a current-carrying long wire (a) may be pictured as concentric circles at which the field vectors act radially outward. (b) may be pictured as concentric circles at which the field vectors act tangent to the circles. (c) has a constant magnitude that does not vary with distance from the wire. (d) b & c.

14) The formula for the field strength around a current carrying long wire is
(a) B = μ_{o}I
/ (2πR). (b) B =
μ_{o}I
/ (2R). (c) B =
I / (2R).
click here

15) μ_{o}= 4π
x 10^{-7} Tm/Amp is called (a) the
permittivity of free space for the passage of electric field effect. (b)
the permeability of free space for the passage of the magnetic field effect.
(c) neither a nor b.

16) The farther from a wire that carries a current, the (a) stronger the magnetic effect. (b) the more constant the magnetic effect. (c) the weaker the magnetic effect. click here

Problem: Draw two
concentric circles in a plane perpendicular to a wire that passes through the
center of the circles. Suppose that the wire carries a constant electric
current, I, upward. Also suppose that the
radius of the greater circle is exactly
twice that of the smaller circle. You also
know that if you were to show magnetic field vectors, you would draw them
tangent to those circles. Draw a vector of length say 1/2 inch tangent to
the greater circle as the magnitude of B at that radius.
Then draw another vector tangent to the smaller circle to represent the field
strength at the other radius. Answer the following questions**:**

17) The magnitude of the field strength at the smaller radius is (a) a vector of length 1 inch. (b) a vector of length 1/4 inch. (c) a vector of length 1/16 inch. click here

18) Based on the upward current in the wire, and looking from the top, the direction of vectors you draw must be (a) clockwise. (b) counterclockwise.

19) What should be the length of the tangent vector you may draw at another circle whose radius is 5 times that of the smaller circle? (a) 1/25 inch. (b) 1/125 inch. (c) 1/5 inch.

20) The magnetic field that a current carrying loop of wire (circular) generates is (a) perpendicular to the plane of the loop. (b) has its maximum effect at the center of the loop and normal to it. (c) has an upward direction if the current flows in the circular loop horizontally in the counterclockwise direction. (d) a, b, & c. click here

21) A solenoid is a coil whose length is (a) at most 5 times its radius. (b) at least 10 times its radius.

22) The magnetic field inside a solenoid and in
the vicinity of its middle (a) is fairly uniform. (b) is non-uniform.
(c) has a magnitude of B =
μ_{o}n
I where n is its number of turns. (d)
has a magnitude of B =
μ_{o}n
I where n is its number of turns per unit length.
(e) a & d.

23) A solenoid is 14**.**0cm long and has
2800**.** turns. A current of 5**.**00A flows through it. The
magnetic field strength inside and near its middle is (a) 0**.**0176T.
(b) 0**.**126T. (c) 0**.**00126T.
click here

24) The magnetic field strength inside and at
the middle of a 8**.**0cm long solenoid is 0**.**377T and it carries a 5**.**00-Amp
current. The number of turns of the solenoid is (a) 4,800 turns.
(b) 12,000 turns. (c) 6,000 turns.

25) The formula for the magnetic field strength,
B, at the center of a coil, not a solenoid, that has N
turns and carries a current, I, is (a) B = Nμ_{o}
I / (2R). (b) B = Nμ_{o}
I / (2πR).
click here

Problems:

1) A proton moving at a speed of 3**.**6x10^{6}
m/s enters a downward 0**.**0800-T uniform magnetic field normal to its field
lines. Find (a) its radius of rotation in the field, (b) the
magnitude the force on it, (c) its centripetal acceleration, (d) angular speed,
and (e) rpm**.** Mp = 1**.**67x10^{-27}kg.
and | e^{+}|=1**.**6x10^{-19}Coul.

2) An electron enters a magnetic field normal to its field lines and is
forced to spin at 4**.**65x10^{6} rpm. Find (a) its angular
speed in rd/s, (b) The strength of the filed, and (c) its speed if the radius of
rotation is 8**.**00cm. M_{e} = 9**.**108x10^{-31}kg.
and |e^{-}|=1**.**6x10^{-19}Coul.

3) 280keV alpha-particles enter a 0**.**125-T magnetic field perpendicular to its field
lines. Find (a) the energy of each particle in Joules, (b) the speed of
the particles, (c) radius of rotation they attain, and (d) their rpm if the
field is big enough to keep the particles inside. Each alpha-particle is a helium nucleus.
It contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons. M_{p} = 1**.**672x10^{-27}kg
and M_{n} = 1**.**674x10^{-27}kg**.**

4) In a left-to-right flow of alpha-rays (Helium nuclei) coming out of
a radioactive substance a 0**.**0325-T
magnetic field is placed in the downward direction. What magnitude
electric field should be placed around the flow such that only **0.0360MeV**
alpha-particles survive both fields?

5) In a cyclotron, electrons are to be accelerated. The strength of the
magnetic field is 0**.**00025 Tesla. (a) Find the period of rotation of the
electrons, (b) their frequency, (c) their final speed if the final radius before hitting
the target is 2**.**0m (neglect relativistic effect), and (d) their K**.**E**.** in Joules and
keVs.

6) In a cyclotron protons
are accelerated to a speed of 2**.**75x10^{8} m/s**.**
(a) By what factor does the proton's mass increase? Knowing that the
rest mass of proton M_{o} = 1**.**672x10^{-27}kg, determine (b) its
mass at that speed.

7) A solenoid is 10**.**0cm long and has
4500 turns. A 0**.**500-A current flows through
it. Find (a) the strength of the magnetic field inside it toward the
middle. (a) If an iron core is inserted in the solenoid, what will the
new field strength be?

8) The magnetic field inside a 12**.**0cm long solenoid is 0**.**0150T when a current of
466 mA flows through it. How many turns does it have?

Answers:

1) 47**.**0cm,
4**.**60x10^{-14}N, 2**.**76x10^{13}m/s^{2},
7**.**66x10^{6} rd/s, 73**.**2x10^{6}
RPM

2) 4**.**87x10^{5}rd/s,
2**.**77x10^{-6}Tesla, 3**.**89x10^{4}m/s

3) 4**.**48x10^{-14}J,
3**.**66x10^{6}m/s,
0**.**612m, 57**.**1x10^{7}rpm 4)
42,600N/Coul.

5) 1**.**4x10^{-7}s,
7**.**0x10^{6}Hz, 8**.**8x10^{7}m/s
, (3**.**5x10^{-15}J, or
22keV)

6) 2**.**50, 4**.**18x10^{-27}kg 7)
0**.**0283T, 10T 8)
3070 turns