Intercultural Communication

Even when language is translated, there can be missed or mangled meanings because of the difficulty of translating connotative meanings, vs. denotative meanings. Examples:

Four variables of cultural values1
Masculine vs. feminine perspectives
Not biological sex differences but overarching approaches to interacting with others. Masculine cultures value achievement, assertiveness, heroism, and material wealth. Feminine cultures value relationships, caring for the less fortunate, and overall quality of life.
Tolerance of uncertainty vs. avoidance of uncertainty
Cultures in which people need certainty to feel secure are more likely to have and enforce rigid rules for behavior and develop more elaborate codes of conduct, either formal or informal.
Concentrated vs. decentralized power
Some cultures value equality and distribution of power more. Others expect a hierarchy and that some people will have more power than others.
Individual vs. group achievement
Some cultures put more emphasis on individualism; some place most emphasis on the good of the group.
Bridging differences
1Summarized from material in Steven A. Beebe, Susan J. Beebe, and Mark V. Redmond, Interpersonal Communication: Relating to Others (Needham Heights, Mass.: Allyn & Bacon, 1996), 345-365.