Natural and Behavioral Science
Anthropology Class with Jon Bethard
Student with Petri Dish

Study Guide for Laboratory Practical II

Study your lab exercises, lab review questions, notes, and any drawings that you might have.  This will serve as a guide to help you sort through the material.  However, your particular lab instructor may have emphasized material that is not on this study guide. You would be responsible for that material also.

Exercise 7a and 7b- DNA Electrophoresis and Structure

  1. Be able to describe a nucleotide, and the structure of DNA.
  2. Be able to describe the orientation of the complementary strands of DNA. 
  3. Be able to describe the type of chemical bonding using to connect the nitrogen bases as well as nucleotides.
  4. Be able to recognize (based on the common coloring system) the types of atoms found in DNA nucleotides (gray-carbon, red- oxygen, blue- nitrogen, yellow- phosphate)
  5. If given a strand of DNA, be able to describe the complementary strand.
  6. What are restriction enzymes and how are they used in DNA fingerprinting?
  7. Be able to explain how gel electrophoresis is used to create “fingerprints” of DNA samples.  Be able to address how DNA charge and fragment size influence banding patterns.
  8. What was the role of each in gel electrophoresis: agarose, TBE or running buffer, the power supply, wells, positive electrode, and negative electrode.

Exercise 8:  Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis

  1. Why do chromosomes appear as an "X" (see page 102, figure 8-2)?
  2. Be able to label sister chromatids, and the centromere of a duplicated chromosome (Figure 8-2, page 102).
  3. Be able to identify and describe ALL the stages of mitosis in an onion root tip under the microscope.
  4. Be able to identify and describe ALL the stages of mitosis in a whitefish blastula under the microscope.
  5. How do mitosis and cytokinesis differ in plants and animals?
  6. What is the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis??
  7. What types of cells undergo mitosis?
  8. Know the primary events of interphase (G1, S, G2).
  9. Know what it means if a cell is "haploid" (n) or "diploid" (2n).
  10. How are homologous chromosomes different from sister chromatids.
  11. Be able to describe differences in mitosis and meiosis. 

Exercise 9 Inheritance of a Single Trait

  1. Be familiar with the following terminology: dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype, genotype, diploid genotype, haploid gamete, alleles, genotypic ratio, phenotypic ratio.
  2. If given the diploid genotype for an individual, be able to identify the possible haploid gametes.
  3. Be able to work problems involving a single trait and true dominance.
  4. Be able to describe some common autosomal human traits: widow’s peak, attached earlobes, freckles, PTC tasting, etc..  If provided the genotype, be able to describe the phenotype.  If provided the phenotype, be able to provide the possible genotypes.  Be able to work simple single trait problems regarding these autosomal characteristics.
  5. Be able to use Chi-Square analysis to examine how actual results differ from predicted results and determine if those differences are due to chance fluctuations or an incorrect prediction You need to know how to apply the Chi-Square formula to sample data. The formula and Chi-Square table would be provided, but you must know how to use the formula and table.

Exercise 10- Inheritance of Two Traits

  1. Be able to determine haploid gametes from a diploid genotype dealing with 2 traits.
  2. Be able to work genetics problems dealing with 2 traits.
  3. Be able to work genetics problems dealing with sex-linkage.
  4. Be able to use Chi-Square analysis to examine how actual results differ from predicted results and determine if those differences are due to chance fluctuations or an incorrect prediction You need to know how to apply the Chi-Square formula to sample data. The formula and Chi-Square table would be provided, but you must know how to use the formula and table.

Exercise 11- Population Genetics and Evolution

  1. Know the Hardy-Weinberg formula.
  2. What do p, q, p2, 2pq, and q2 represent?
  3. How can the formulas be used to determine if evolution has occurred?
  4. What are the 5 things that can cause shifts in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?  In other words, what are the 5 things that can cause evolution to occur??
  5. If given a population in which you know the homozygous dominants, heterozygotes, and the homozygous recessives, be able to calculate the frequency of p and q.

 

               p =  (2X homozygous pp) + heterozygotes pq

                    ---------------------------------

                         total alleles

                                       

  1. What happened to the frequencies of p and q in the random mating population? Why? Was your population large (over 20 individual) or small (less than 20 individuals). 
  2. What happed to the frequencies of p and q in the random mating population with the lethal recessive?  Why? With the heterozygote advantage?
  3. In a population in which you can only identify the homozygous recessives, be able to calculate the frequencies of p and q by solving for q.